INTERSTATE HIGH SPEED RAIL ACELA PROMISE
by Thomas Dorsey, SoulOfAmerica
Okay … So the image below is a little misleading. Amtrak Acela only reaches 160 mph for 24 miles. Lets explore why the 456-mile principal route of Amtrak since 1971, underachieves today, but is better than flying in the Northeast Corridor and has great promise in the years ahead.
The Boston-NYC-Washington Northeast Corridor is often described as America’s most strategic region. It contains the largest concentration of residents, business, government, colleges, medical centers and tourists. It produces one quarter of America’s economic output. For those reasons, Congress, Presidents and the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) have allocated the majority of federal railroad funds to this corridor.
For reasons of passenger experience, its best to think of the Northeast Corridor as two strings of cities in segments linked by railroading since the 1830s:
* Washington-Baltimore-Wilmington-Philadelphia-Newark-New York City
* Boston-Providence-New Haven-New Rochelle-New York City
In 1977-81, President Carter’s USDOT allocated a few hundred million dollars to begin building overpasses that would eliminate all roadway crossings over 225 miles of passenger railway between NYC and Washington. Presidents Reagan and Bush I were not keen about funding anything that would help Amtrak. Nevertheless, Carter’s funding allowed Washington-NYC railway segment had all road crossings eliminated, fenced-off tracks, station platforms level with train floors, and overhead electrical wires, called “catenaries”, permitted Amtrak Metroliner trains to reach 125 mph top speed.
That may sound fast, but too many Slow Zones (sharing tracks with freight & commuter trains, curvy tracks, poor bedding under tracks, old electric catenaries, old bridges and tunnels) produced only 68 mph average speed for a lousy 3:20 minute Washington-NYC Journey Time. Due to far more Slow Zones, the 231-mile Boston-New York City segment produced a snail-like 4:30 minute Journey Time. Amtrak Metroliner Trains ran every 30-45 minutes in the Northeast Corridor.
By comparison, world-class French, Japanese and Italian HSR service eliminated Slow Zones to reach 186 mph and average 135 mph in the 1990s.
CLINTON STARTS INTERSTATE HIGH SPEED RAIL, SORT OF
As America started emerging from economic recession in 1993, President Clinton’s USDOT began the first funding for entry-level High Speed Rail (HSR) service. Clinton stated the need for speeds like the French TGV to produce a 5-hour Boston-NYC-Washington trip time and frequent trains.
But TGV HSR service in Paris-Lyon corridor cost $6 billion from 1971-1981 for 274-miles of HSR-only tracks. Given Boston-NYC-Washington was 456 miles, had far more bridges and tunnels to upgrade, and 22 years more inflation, the cost to achieve similar results would likely be $18 billion. Since Congress would only approve $2 billion in economic stimulus funds and $2 billion more over the rest of his 8-year administration, Clinton’s USDOT needed a strategy with more focus, yet sure of success for high-profile impact.
NYC-Newark-Philadelphia-Wilmington-Baltimore-Washington corridor segment had roadway crossings eliminated in the 1980s to enable 125 mph and five train stations served by rapid transit in the 1990s. The fastest drive between NYC and Washington required use of tollways for half the distance and averaged only 60 mph. It is often congested, causing driver frustration and blown schedules. Nor did people want the higher expense and hassles of flying less than 230 miles between JFK, LaGuardia, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore and DC airports, plus taxi rides to each central business district.
Given the population density of NYC-Newark-Philadelphia-Wilmington-Baltmore-Washington corridor was triple that of Paris-Lyon corridor and at 225 miles, is 49 miles shorter than Paris-Lyon corridor, Clinton’s Department of Transportation should have focused funding in that corridor would spur demand for world-class HSR expansion. Unfortunately, the Clinton Administration got hoodwinked and lacked vision for political salesmanship of HSR.
First, lets examine the hoodwinked part. MagLev was running on short test tracks in Germany and Japan at a jaw-dropping 267-280 mph. Due to excessive construction and energy costs however, neither country would announce construction dates to move MagLev into commercial operation. Most telling of all, both nations continued building HSR routes. There is no way america should have paid for MagLev engineering studies before Japan or Germany committed to build MagLev for commercial operation.
Second, Clinton’s USDOT lacked political salesmanship to focus $2 billion in stimulus funds and a cumulative $2 billion in federal railroad grants over Clinton’s 8-year administration in the Washington-NYC segment. Combining that $4 billion with not wasting $1 billion on MagLev engineering studies, would have attracted $3 billion over 8 years from five states in the corridor. In total, $8 billion could have built 187 miles of HSR-only track and new bridges in the mostly flat NYC-Newark-Philadelphia-Wilmington-east of Baltimore segment.
By 2001, the media and public would pressure Congress to finish HSR-only tracks & tunnels in Baltimore-Washington segment for a 2-Hour NYC-Washington Journey Time and fund upgrades for a NYC-Boston 3-Hour Journey Time by 2009.
Northeast Corridor HSR success would have spurred demand for HSR in Washington-Richmond-Raleigh-Charlotte, NYC-Albany-Rochester-Buffalo and Philadelphia-Pittsburgh-Cleveland corridors, once Obama’s USDOT arrived.
Instead, only $4 billion from Ford to Clinton administrations was invested in the 457-mile Northeast Corridor, leaving us with Acela HSR that falls well short of promise.
POPULAR, DESPITE COMPROMISES
Acela’s trains are certified to safely operate at 165 mph. Yet, when Acela trains were introduced on 18 miles in two HSR zones in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, there wasn’t enough safety space between the HSR tracks and parallel tracks containing slow commuter and freight trains. At 165 mph, more air pressure between passing trains would create an uncomfortable passenger jolt. Nor could Acela excessively tilt towards freight and commuter trains without maintaining a safe distance. As a result, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) limited Acela to 150 mph top speed and smaller tilt in those two zones. As of 2017, Amtrak upgrades now enable three zones totaling 34 miles of 150 mph track in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut.
Now the bad news. Average speed in the corridor are crippled by Slow Zones of 80-110 mph track in New Haven-eastern Connecticut segment and ultra-curvy, old bridges 60-90 mph track in the NYC-New Rochelle-New Haven segment. Constrained by those conditions, Boston-Providence-New Haven-New Rochelle-NYC Journey Time is a lengthy 3:35 minutes.
Nevertheless, Acela’s wider leather seats, electrical outlets at each seat, dining options and 91% on-time performance appeals to many business travelers. To better differentiate the superior passenger experience of Acela, Amtrak name-changed its prior best passenger experience, “Metroliner”, to “Northeast Regional” trains that make more stops and cost half as much to ride.
Since 9-11-2001, flying between Northeast Corridor cities is a big drag. Security lines, boarding delay, runway delay, de-boarding delay and taxi rides cause Journey Time between Washington and NYC to take 3.5 hours with only 70% on-time performance for most airlines, plus taxi/shuttle time between each Central Business District.
In contrast, Acela patrons often arrive only 10-15 minutes before their scheduled train because security is a breeze and boarding through as many as 16 train cabin doors is extremely fast. Trains run more dependably than planes. Though many planes boast WiFi service lately, you get more uninterrupted Wi-Fi on the train. About 2 minutes before arrival at destinations, patrons gather belongings and start heading for cabin doors. When doors open, de-boarding happens in less than a minute.
After leaving urban areas, the 226-mile Washington-NYC segment has fewer curves, permitting Acela to run 110-135 mph over most of its distance, excluding old bridges that require slower speeds. Acela Express has 2:42 minute “best” Journey Time in that segment. Northeast Regional trains take about 30 minutes longer. Since you arrive in the heart of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Newark and New York City, there is no long taxi/shuttle/Uber/Lyft ride to to central business districts. The clincher is Washingtonians and New Yorkers discovered that they could Day Trip via 5:30am-8:00am departures and 5:30pm-9:00pm returns.
Boston-NYC segment is curvier, has more old bridges, runs fewer trains and on-time performance is ~83%. In fact, most train delays in Washington-NYC segment start with trains from Boston-NYC segment.
Since Acela represents time, productivity, comfort and dependability advantages over flying, twice as many people ride trains than fly between Washington and NYC. Acela and Northeast Regional trains attracted over 15 million passengers in 2016 — more than all, but the Top 19 U.S. Airports.
In 2010, Obama awarded money for speed upgrades to four Northeast Corridor sections totaling 100 miles, with 24 miles between Newark and New Brunswick, NJ for HSR-only track upgrade. In 2013 after-hour tests, existing Acela Express trains were re-certified to operate at 160 mph. In 2019, that stretch of track allows Acela Express to reach 160 mph. Obama also funded Amtrak to build Nextgen 200 mph trains scheduled to arrive 2021-22.
Here’s where it gets personal. In July 2014, I had dinner with my Hound Phi Hound (college social club) brothers in Philadelphia 30th Street Station. Afterwards, I planned to ride the Amtrak Northeast Regional train to Baltimore.
After the evening fun was had, I discovered that my train was running so late. The Acela Express scheduled after it would arrive an hour before the next Northeast Regional. Under normal Amtrak rules, you can’t take the Acela having only paid for Northeast Regional as that would be a sneaky upgrade. But since I didn’t cause the long train delay before the next Northeast Regional, I didn’t think I should have to pay for an upgrade. Fortunately, a helpful Amtrak agent (Ricarda Burrell) jumped through hoops to get me on the Acela Express without a hassle. I had another great Acela riding experience and made it to Baltimore on time to be picked up by family. Nevertheless, I wish there were fewer Acela delays and more frequent trains up to 10pm, like Europe and Asia.
A majority of Senate Republicans have agreed to boost HSR funding in the MAP-21 Bill Proposal. If a new group of House Republicans come around, our government can deliver world class HSR service in the Northeast Corridor.
Instead of fighting with Democrats on every issue, lets hope the Republican Congress recognizes that America’s high density corridors must include frequent 150-200 mph service on HSR track, like Asia and Europe. With their help, Nextgen Acela can expand from 60 miles to 350 miles of HSR track in 456-mile Washington-NYC-Boston corridor by 2025. Nextgen Acela can also run every 20 minutes with 96% on-time performance, approaching French TGV on-time performance. Until then, Ricarda Burrell is working overtime to deliver customer satisfaction.
For more insights on HSR in America, see Interstate High Speed Rail Progress, Part 1